Featured Articles Silver Archives

Silver Clinical Case Studies

Following are a number of clinical studies concerning the use of silver in various forms, from silver anti-microbial wound dressings to anti-microbial silver polymer for the treatment of venous leg ulcers to the use of ionic silver to promote healing.

1. Gibbins, Bruce Ph.D., AcryMed, Inc., Portland, OR April 2000
Pre-clinical and Clinical Evaluation of a New Silver Anti-Microbial Chronic Wound Dressing ”

2. Nametka, Mary, RN, MSN, CS CWS, WCN, Associates in Wound Care, Kenosha, WI Oct. 2000
A Hydrophilic Silver Antimicrobial Wound Dressing for Site Preparation and Maintenance of Human Skin Equivalent Grafts to Venus Leg Ulcers: Technical and Clinical Considerations

3. Nametka, Mary, RN, MSN, CS CWS, WCN , Associates in Wound Care, Kenosha, WI May 2001
Antimicrobial Silver Polymer Contact Layer for Treatment of Venous Leg Ulcers

4. Nametka, Mary, RN, MSN, CS CWS, WCN , Associates in Wound Care, Kenosha, WI June 2001
Clinical Protocol for use of Absorbent Silver Antimicrobial Polymer Dressings

5. Nametka, Mary, RN, MSN, CS CWS, WCN , Associates in Wound Care, Kenosha, WI April 2002
Silver Antimicrobial Hydrophilic Dressing Benefits Management of Recurrent Non-healing Wounds

6. Nametka, Mary, RN, MSN, CS CWS, WCN , Associates in Wound Care, Kenosha, WI Sept. 2002
Silver Antimicrobial Absorbent Wound Dressing Can Contribute to Cost Control in Home Care

7. Smith, Latisha M.D ., Ostomy Wound Management, Feb. 2003
Clinical Experience using Silver Antimicrobial Dressings on Venous Stasis Ulcers

8. Gibbins, Bruce Ph.D., Ostomy Wound Management, Feb. 2003
The Antimicrobial Benefits of Silver and the relevance of Microlattice Technology

9. Rose, Susan RN, BSN, CWOCN , Gentiva Health Services, Tuscon, AZ. April 2003
Importance of Assessment and Wound Bed Preparation in the Treatment of Chronic Wounds

10. Paz-Altschul, Oscar M.D., FACS , Desert Regional Medical Center, Palm Springs, CA April 2003
Silver Microlattice Uses in Chronic Wound Care

11. Tamulonis, Ruth RN, MS, CWOCN , Marshalltown Medical & Surgical Center, Marshalltown, IA April 2003 The Use of a Unique Delivery Method of Ionic Silver: A Case Series

12. Brandy, J. Christopher, MD, FACS, Caromont Wound Center Gastonia, NC April 2003
Understanding the Role of Ionic Silver in Wound Bed Preparation

13. Tamulonis, Ruth RN, MS, CWOCN , Marshalltown Medical & Surgical Center, Marshalltown, IA June 2003 A Paradigm Shift in Wound Management

14. Trowsdale, Helen RN, BSN and Olveda, Mary RN, BSN A-Plus Family Care, SanAntonio, TX
Meeting the Challenges for Wounds in Home Care with a Silver Amorphous Hydrogel and Collagen

15. Agbim, Salome ND CNS APRN BC and Miner, Kimberly ND CNS CWCN Wound Care Associates, Englewood, CO Bioburden Control through the use of Silve Anti-moicrobial Gel on Contaminated Stage IV Pressure Ulcer

16. McCord, Shannon MS, RN, CPNP, CNS, CCRN, WOCN, and Bookout, Kimberly BSN, RN, CWOCN, and McLane, Kathleen MSN,RN, CPNP, CWCN, COCN, and Helmrath, Michael MD Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, TX June 2004 “Use of Silver Dressing with Neonatal Abdominal Evisceration”

17. Marjorie Groom, RN, CWOCN, MSHCA, DAPWCA, Memorial Hosptial Belleville, IL April 2005 “Enhancing Venous Leg Ulcer Health with an Ionic Silver Hydrogel”

18. Barbara Conway Salerno, RN, BSN, CWOCN, Eddy Visiting Nurses, Troy, NY April 2005 “The Use of Controlled-Release Ionic Silver Hydrogel in the Management of Chronic Wounds”

19. Vickie Shuffitt, PT, Scott Hoskinson, MD and Carol Matsumoto, RN, CWOCN Wound Care Program, Maui Memorial Medical Center, Wailuku, HI “Silver Antimicrobial Hydrogel Eradicates Bioburden and Hastens Discharge for Acute Care Facility”

20. Gibbins, Bruce PhD and Karandikar, Bhalchandra PhD AcryMed, Inc., Portland, OR July 2005 “Novel Silver Antimicrobial Treatment”

21. Susan Girolami, BSN, RN, CWOCN Therapy Support, Inc., Cincinnati, OH April 2006 “Combining Ionic Silver Wound Hydrogel and Negative Pressure for Limb Salvage”

22. Cameron Field, DPM and Kenneth Morgan, DPM HealthOne Alliance Presbyterian/St. Lukes, Denver, CO April 2006 “External Fixation Pin Care Protocol Utilizing Ionic Silver Site Dressings”

23. Mary Webb, RN, BSN, MA, CIC San Mateo Medical Center, San Mateo, CA April 2006 “Use of Ionic Silver and Collagen to Reduce Bioburden and Promote Healing for Improved Quality of Life in a Complex Patient”

Man’s knowledge of and use of silver is as old as mankind’s history and there has been volumes of research on silver for many decades. Alfred B. Searle, the founder of Searle Pharmaceuticals, which later became Monsanto Chemical Co., did scientific studies on silver and wrote a book about his research in the 1920s. Anyone claiming that credible research has not been done concerning silver is either intentionally lying or is simply ignorant of the truth and should not be in anything resembling a position of authority.

Featured Articles Silver Archives


This amazing bibliography was assembled by Dr. A. Bart Flick, the developer of the silver infused wound bandaging material Silverlon.

1. Addicks, L. et al.: Silver in Industry, Reinhold Pub. Corp., NY 401-450, 584-597 (1940). Extensive bibliography on silver for water purification.
2. Akiyama, H. and Okamoto, S., Prophylaxis of indwelling urethral catheter infection: clinical experience with a modified Foley catheter and drainage system, J. Urol., 121, 40, 1979.
3. Avakyan, Z.A., Comparative toxicity of heavy metals for certain microorganisms, Microbiology, 36, 366, 1967.
4. Baenziger, N.C., Description of the structure of three silver-containing drug complexes, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
5. Barranco, S.D. and Colmano, G., Electrical Inhibition of Staphlococcus aureus, Virginia Medical, 646, 1976.
6. Barranco, S.D., Spadaro, J.A., Berger, T.J., and Becker, R.O., In vitro effect of weak direct current on staphlococcus aureus, Clinical Orthopaedics, 100, 250, 1974.
7. Becker, R.O., Electrical treatment of osteomyelitis, Surgery of the Musculoskeletal System, Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1983, 4, 10- 197.
8. Becker, R.O., The effect of electrically generated silver ions on human cells, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
9. Becker, R.O., Effect of anodally generated silver ions on fibrosarcoma cells, Electro- and Magnetobio., 11, 57, 1992.
10. Becker, R.O. and Esper, C., Electrostimulation and undetected malignant tumors, Clin. Orthop., 161, 336, 1981.
11. Becker, R.O. and Spadaro, J.A., Treatment of Orthopedic Infections with electrically generated silver ions, J. Bone Jt. Surgery., 60-A, 871, 1978.
12. Benvenisty, A.I., Tannenbaum, G., Ahlborn, T.N., Fox, C.L., Modak, S., Sampath, L., Reemtsma, K. and Nowygrod, R., Control of prosthetic bacterial infections: evaluation of an easily incorporated, tightly bound, silver antibiotic PTFE graft, J. Surg. Res., 44,1, 1988.
13. Berger, T.J., Spadaro, J.A., Chapin, S.E., and Becker, R.O., Electrically generated silver ions: quantitative effects on bacterial and mammalian cells, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 9, 357, 1976.
14. Berger, T.J., Spadaro, J.A., Bierman, R., Chapin, S.E., and Becker, R.O., Antifungal properties of electrically generated metallic ions, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 10, 856, 1976.
15. Block, Seymour, Ed.: Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation, Chapter 18; Lea & Febiger & Co., Philadelphia, 3rd Ed (1983). Extensive bibliography.
16. Bolton, L., Foleno, B., Means, B., and Petrucelli, S., Direct-current bactericidal effect on intact skin, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 18, 137, 1980.
17. Bolton, M., The effects of various metals on the growth of certain bacteria, Am. Phys., ?, 174, ?.
18. Bragg, P.D. and Rainnie, D.J., The effect of silver ions on the respiratory chain of Escherichia coli, Can. J. Microbiol., 20, 883, 1974.
19. Buckley, W.R.: Localized Argyria, Arch. Dermatol. 88: 531-539, 1963.
20. Bult, A., Silver sulfanilamides and related compounds for dermatological application, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
21. Burke, J.F., and Bondoc, C.C., Combined burn therapy utilizing immediate skin allografts and 0.5% AgNO3, Arch. Surg., 97, 716, 1968.
22. Burleson, R., and Eiseman, B., Mechanisms of antibacterial effect of biologic dressings, Ann. Surg., 177, 181, 1973.
23. Burleson, R., and Eiseman, B., Effect of skin dressings and topical antibiotics on healing of partial thickness skin wounds in rats, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 136, 958, 1973.
24. Butts, A., The chemical properties of silver, Silver-Economics, Metallurgy, and Use, ed. Butts, A., Krieger, Huntington, NY 1975, 123.
25. Carr, H.S., Wlodkowski, T.J., Rosenkranz, H.S., Silver-sulfadiazine: in vitro antibacterial activity, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 4, 585, 1973.
26. Chu, C.S., McManus, A.T., Okerberg, C.V., Mason, A.D., and Pruitt, B.A., Weak direct current accelerates split-thickness graft healing on tangentially excised second-degree burns, J. Burn Care Rehab., 12, 285, 1991.
27. Chu, C.S., McManus, A.T., Mason, A.D., Okerberg, C.V. and Pruitt, B.A., Multiple graft harvestings from deep partial-thickness scald wounds healed under the influence of weak direct current, J. Trauma, 30, 1044, 1990.
28. Chu, C.C., Tsai, W.C., Yao, J.Y., and Chiu, S.S., Newly made antibacterial braided nylon sutures. 1. In vitro qualitative and in vivo preliminary biocompatibility study, J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 21, 1281, 1987
29. Cieszynski, T., Influence of negative electricity on infected callus and osteitis, Acta Morphologica Acad. Sci. Hung., 15, 309, 1967.
30. Collinge, C.A., Goll, G., Seligson, D. and Easly, K.J., Pin tract infections: silver vs. uncoated pins. Orthopedics, 17, 445, 1994.
31. Colmano, G., Medical Applications of monomolecular films of silver, gold and other metals, International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
32. Colmano, G., and Barranco, S.D., Inhibition of staphlococcus aureus on a contaminated electrode in the femur of the rabbitt by low electrical current and its relation to stress, Biophys. J., 15, 28a, 1975.
33. Colmano, G., and Barranco, S.D., Staphlococcus aureus inhibition by low direct current on silver electrodes in the femur of rabbits. Fifty- third Annual meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science, Harrisonburg, VA, May 6-9, 1975.
34. Colmano, G., Edwards, S.S., Lesch, T.E., and Barranco, S.D., Control of Staphlococcus aureus osteomyelitis by microampere activation of metal ions in monomolecular films on stainless steel pins, Fifty-Third Annual Meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science, Harrisonburg, VA, May 6- 9,
35. Colmano, G., Edwards, S.S., and Barranco, S.D. Activation of antibacterial silver coatings on surgical implants by direct current: preliminary studies in rabbits, _., 41, 964, 1980.
36. Colmano, G. , Edwards, S.S., Fainter, L.K. and Barranco, S. D., Electronmicrographs of silver and stainless steel surgical implants coated with silver compounds to control S. Aureus by direct current activation, Twenty-eighth Annual ORS, New Orleans, LA, January 19-21, 1982.
37. Colmano, G., Edwards, S.S. and Barranco, S.L., Effects of low direct current on monomolecular layers of metal stearates coating electrodes in bacterial cultures and surgical implants, Symposium URSI “Ondes Electro-magnetiques et Biologie”, Jouy-en-Josas, Juillet, 1980, 149.
38. Colmano, G., Fainter, L.K., Edwards, S.S., and Barranco, S.D., SEM of S. aureus on current-activated surgical pins coated with silver and silver stearate monolayers, Second Annual BRAGS, Oxford, U.K., Sept. 20-22, 1982.
39. Cowlishaw, J., Spadaro, J.A., Becker, R.A., Inhibition of enzyme induction in e. coli by anadoc silver, J. Bioelectricity, 1, 295, 1982.
40. Crannell, M.Y., Silver in Medicine, Silver-Economics, Metallurgy and Use, ed. Butts, A., Krieger, Huntington, NY, 1975, 227.
41. Cullen, J.M. and Spadaro, J.A., Axonal regeneration in the spinal cord: a role for applied electricity, J. Bioelectricity, 2, 57, 1983.
42. Danscher, G., Rytter Norgaard, J.O., and Baatrup, E., Autometallography: tissue metals demonstrated by a silver enhancement kit, Histochemistry, 86, 465, 1987.
43. Deitch, E.A., Marino, A.A., Gillespie, T.E., and Albright, J.A., Silver-nylon: a new antimicrobial agent, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 23, 356, 1983.
44. Deitch, E . A. , Marino, A. A . , Malaleonok, V. , and Alb richt, J . A . , Silver nylon cloth: in vitro and in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial activity, J. Trauma, 27, 301, 1987.
45. Doherty, P.J. and Williams, D.F., The response of cells and cellular enzymes to silver, presented at Biointeractions ’87, Cambridge, U.K., July 6-8, 1987, 38.
46. Conahue, G.F., The analytical chemistry of silver,…
47. Eichhom, G.L., Shin, Y.A., Butzow, J.J., Clark, P., and Tarien, E., Interaction of metal ions with biological systems, with special reference to silver and gold, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
48. Ellerman-Eriksen, S., Rungby, J., and Morgensen, S.C., Autointerference in silver accumulation in macrophages without affecting phagocytic, migratory or interferon-producing capacity, Virchows Arch., B. 53, 243, 1987.
49. Ersek, R.A., and Navarro, J.A., Maximizing wound healing with silver impregnated porcine xenograft, Today’s OR Nurse, 12, 4, 1990.
50. Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Cross-linked silver-impregnated skin for burn wound management, J. Burn Care Rehabil., 9, 476, 1988.
51. Ersek, R.A., Gadaria, U., and Denton, D.R., New natural wound dressing, Phys. Ther. Forum, 5, 1, 1986.
52. Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Silver-impregnated porcine xenograft for damaged or missing skin, Contemp. Surg., 23, 83, 1983.
53. Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Treatment of skin graft donor sites using silver-impregnated porcine xenograft, Contemp. Orthop., 12, 27, 1986.
54. Ersek, R. A. and Denton, D . R. , Silver-impregnated porcine xenografts for treatment of meshed autografts, Plast. Surg., 13, 482, 1984.
55. ErsekR.A. and Lorio, J., The most indolent ulcers of the skin treated with porcine xenografts and silver ions, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 158, 431, 1984.
56. Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Rhinophyma: treatment with electrocautery and silver-impregnated porcine xenograft, Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 74, 269, 1984.
57. Ersek, R.A., and Hachen, H.J., Porcine xenografts in the treatment of pressure ulcers, Ann. Plast. Surg., 5, 464, 1980.
58. Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Nail bed avulsions treated with porcine xenografts, J. Hand Surg., 10A, 152, 1985.
59. Ersek, R.A., Denton, D.R., Surak, G.M., and Peters, C.W., Treatment of spider bites with silver-impregnated porcine xenografts, Texas Med., 81, 32, 1985.
60. Falcone, A.E., and Spadaro, J.A., Inhibitory effects of electrically activated silver material on cutaneous wound bacteria, Plast. Reconstruc. Surg., 77, 455, 1986.
61. Flick, A.B., Clinical application of electrical silver iontophoresis, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
62. Flowers III, R.H., Schwenzer, K.J., Kopel, R.F., Fisch, M.J., Tucker, S.I., and Farr, B.M., Efficacy of an attachable subcutaneous cuff for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infection. JAMA, 261, 878, 1989.
63. Fox, C.L., Jr.: Silver Sulfadiazine – A New Topical Therapy for Pseudomonas in Burns; Arch. Surg., 96, 184-188 (1968)
64. Fox, C.L. and Modak, S.M., Mechanism of silver sulfadiazine action on burn wound infections, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 5, 582, 1974.
65. Fox, C.L. and Quintiliani, R., Uses of silver sulfadiazine in burns and surgical wounds, Inf. in Surg., 13, 1982.
66. Furst, A., Schlauder, M.C.: Inactivity of Two Noble Metals as Carcinogens; Jour. Environmental Pathology and Toxicology, 1, 51-57
67. Geddes, L.A., and Baker, L.E., Chlorided silver electrodes, Med. Res. Eng., Third quarter, 33, 1967.
68. Golubovich, V.N., and Rabotnova, I.L., Kinetics of growth inhibition in Candida utilis by silver ions, Microbio., 43, 948, 1974.
69. Gristina, A.G., and Costerton, J.W., Bacterial adherence to Biomaterials and tissue, J. Bone Jt. Surg., 67-A, 264, 1985.
70. Gruen, L.C., Interaction of amino acids with silver ions, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 386, 270, 1975.
71. Haeger, K., Preoperative treatment of leg ulcers with silver spray and aluminum foil, Acta Chir. Scand., 125, 32, 1963.
72. Hall, R.E., Bender, G., and Marquis, R.E., In vitro effects of ion intensity direct current generated silver on eukaryotic cells, J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg., 46, 128, 1988.
73. Hall, R.E., Bender, G., and Marquis, R.E., Inhibitory and cidal antimicrobial actions of electrically generated silver ions, J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg., 45, 779, 1987.
74. Halsted, W.S., Ligature and suture material: the employment of fine silk in preference to catgut and the advantages of transfixion of tissues and vessels in control of hemorrhage – also an account of the introduction of gloves, gutta-percha tissue and silver foil, JAMA, LX, 1119, 1913.
75. Harker, J.M., and Hunter, D.: Occupational Argyria, Br J. Dermatol. 47: 441-455, 1935.
76. Harrison, H.N., Pharmacology of Sulfadiazine silver, Arch. Surg., 114, 281, 1979.
77. Haynes, J.L., and Schulte, T.H., Antibacterial silver surfaces and assessment of needs and opportunities for clinical devices, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
78. Hendry, A.T., and Stewart, I.O., Silver-resistant enterobacteriaceae from hospital patients, Can. J. Microbiol., 25, 915, 1979.
79. Holder, I.A., Knoll, C.A., and Wesselman, J., Norfloxacin and silvernorfloxacin as topical antimicrobial agents: results of in vitro susceptibility testing against bacteria and Candida sp. isolated from burn patients, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
80. Janz, G.J., and Ives, D.J.G., Silver, silver chloride electrodes, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., ?, 210, ?.
81. Jono, K., Yamano, T., Fujmoto, T., and Eguchi, Y.: Bactericidal Action of Active Carbon Coated With Silver and Its Application to Water Purifiers; J. Takeda Research Lab., 33, 9-18, (1974).
82. Jones, A.M., and Bailey, J.A.: Effect of Silver from Cloud Seeding on Rabbits; Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 3/3, 353-363 (1974).
83. Kahn, J., Acetic acid iontophoresis for calcium deposits, Phys. Ther., 57, 658, 1977.
84. Kahn, J., Calcium iontophoresis in suspected myopathy, Phys. Ther.
85. Kirchoff, D.A.: Localized Argyria After a Surgical Endodontic Procedure, Oral Surg. 32: 613-617, 1971.
86. Kramer, S.J., Spadaro, J.A. and Webster, D.A., Antibacterial and osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone matrix treated with silver, Clin. Orthop. Rell. Res., 161, 154, 1981.
87. Kul’skii, L.A., Savluk, O.S., Moroz, O.G., and Kornievakay, L.P.: Disinfection and Conservation of Water with Silver (Russian), Aktualne Vodoprovedeniye Sanitarniy Mikrobiologii, 111 (1973).
88. Landeen, L.K., Yahya, M.T., Kutz, S.M., Gerba, C.P.: Microbiological Evaluation of Copper: Silver Disinfection Units for Use in Swimming Pools; Water Science Tech., 21, 3, 267-270 (1989).
89. Lee, J.V., Hibberd, M.L. and Stanley, S.C.: A Comparison of the Biocidal Properties of Silver Ions and Chloride Against Legionella Species; PHLS Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 OJG, England, DD3/2 AGREPORT (1989).
90. McHugh, G.L., Moellering, R.C., Hopkins, C.C. and Swartz, M.N., Salmonella typhimurium resistant to silver nitrate, chloramphenicol and ampicilin, Lancet, ii, 235, 1975.
91. McNamara, A. and Williams, D.F., Scanning electron microscopy of the metal-tissue interface, Biomaterials, 3, 160, 1982.
92. MacKeen, P.C., Person, S., Warner, S.C., Snipes, W., and Stevens, S.E., Silver-coated nylon fiber as an antibacterial agent, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 31, 93, 1987.
93. Madden, M.R., Nolan, E., Finkelstein, J.L., Yurt, R.W., Smeland, J., Goodwin, C.W., Hefton, J., and Staiano-Coico, L., Comparison of an occlusive and semi-occlusive dressing and the effect of the wound exudate upon keratinocyte proliferation, J. Trauma, 29, 924, 1989.
94. Mahan, J., Seligson, D., Henry, S.L., Hynes, P., and Dobbins, J., Factors in pin tract infections, Orthopedics, 14, 305, 1991.
95. Maki, D.G., Cobb, L., Garman, J.K., Shapiro, J.M., Ringer, M., and Helgerson, R.B., An attachable silver-impregnated cuff for prevention of infection with central venous catheters: a prospective randomized multicenter trial, Am. J. Med., 85, 307, 1988.
96. Marchant, R.E., Miller, K.M. and Anderson, J.M., In vivo Leukocyte interactions with Biomer, J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 18, 1169, 1984.
97. Marino, A.A., Malakonok, V., Albright, J.A., Deitch, E.A. and Specian, R.D., Electrochemical properties of silver-nylon fabrics, J. Electrochem. Soc., 132, 68, 1985.
98. Marino, A.A., Electromagnetic fields, cancer and the theory of neuroendocrine related promotion, Bioelectrochem. Bioenergetics, 29- 255, 1993.
99. Marino, A.A., Deitch, E.A., Malakanok, V., Albright, J.A., and Specian, R. D., Electrical augmentation of the antimicrobial activity of silver-nylon fabrics, J. Biol. Phys., 12, 93, 1984.
100. Marino, A.A., Malakanok, V., Deitch, E.A., and Albright, J., Electrical properties of silver-nylon, Third Annual BRAGS, San Francisco, CA, Oct. 2-5, 1983, 36.
101. Marino, A.A., Deitch, E.A. and Albright, J.A., Electric silver antisepsis, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., BME-32, 336, 1985.
102. Marino, A.A., Berger, T.J., Becker, R.O. and Spadaro, J.A., The effects of selected metals on marrow cells in culture, Chem. Biol. Interactions, 9, 217, 1974.
103. Marshall, J.P., and Schneider, R.P.: Systemic Argyria Secondary to Topical Silver Nitrate, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 1077-1079, 1977.
104. Mears, D.C., Electron-probe microanalysis of tissue and cells from implant areas, J. Bone Joint Surg., 48B, 567, 1966.
105. Merril, C.R., Silver-stain detection of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
106. Modak, S.M. and Fox, F.L., Binding of silver sulfadiazine to the cellular components of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Biochem. Pharmacol., 22, 2391, 1973.
107. Modak, S.M., Sampath, L., Fox, C.L. Combined use of silver sulfadiazine and antibiotics topically in burn wounds as a possible solution to bacterial resistance, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
108. Modak, S.M., Sampath, Lester and Fox, C.L.: Combined Use of Silver Sulfadiazine and Antibiotics as a Possible Solution to Bacterial Resistance in Burn Wounds; Jour. Burn Care, Vol. 9, No. 4, p. 359 (July/Aug 1988).
109. Modak, S.M. and Fox, C.L. Sulfadiazine silver-resistant Pseudomonas in burns: new topical agents, Arch. Surg., 116, 854, 1981.
110. Nordenstrom, B.E.W. Biokinetic impacts of structure and imaging of the lung: the concept of biologically closed electric circuits. AJR, 145, 1985, 447.
111. Olcott, C.T.: Experimental Argyrosis, IV, Morphological Changes in the Experimental Animal; Am. Jour. of Pathology, 24, 813, (1948).
112. Orr, M.A., Electroplating….
113. Owen, M.C.R.: A Case History of 30 Years of Use With Silver Disinfected Drinking Water; Records of EPA Public Hearing on Revised Primary Drinking Water Regulations held Jan. 28, 1986.
114. Pareilleux, A. and Sizard, N., Lethal effects of electric current on Escherichia coli. Appl. Microbiol., 19, 421, 1970.
115. Pariser, R.J., Generalized argyria: Clinopathologic Features and Histochemistry, Arch. Dermatol., 114; 373-377, 1978.
116. Parker, W.A.: Argyria and Cyanotic Heart Disease, Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 34: 287-789, 1977.
117. Pharmacology and Therapeutics; Pergamon Press, Series A, Vol. 1. 127-130 (1976).
118. Pifer, J.W., Fridlander, B.R., Kintz, R.T., and Stockdale, D.K., Absence of toxic effects in silver reclamation workers, Scand. J. Work Environ. Health, 15, 210, 1989.
119. Polachek, A.A., Cope, C.B., Willard, B.S., and Enns, T.: Metabolism of Radioactive Silver in a Patient with Carcinoid; Jour. Lab. and Clinical Medicine, 56, 1976-1979 (1949).
120. Rich, L.L., Epinette, W.W., and Wasser, W.K.: Argyria Presenting as Cyanotic Heart Disease, Am J. Cardiol. 30: 290, 1972.
121. Rode, H. de Wet, P.M. and Cywes, S., Germicidal efficacy of silver sulfadiazine in burn wounds. First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
122. Ronchese, F.: Argyrosis and Cyanosis – Melanosis and Cyanosis, Arch. Dermatol. 80: 277-282, 1959.
123. Rosenberg, B., Van Camp, L., and Krigas, T., Inhibition of cell division in Escherrichia coli by electrolysis products from a platinum electrode, Nature, 205, 1965.
124. Rosenkranz, H.S. and Carr, H.S., Silver sulfadiazine: effect on the growth and metabolism of bacteria, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 2, 948-951, 1972.
125. Rosenkranz, H. S., Coward, J.E., Wlodkowski, T.J. and Carr, H. S. Properties of silver sulfadiazine-resistant enterobacter cloacae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 5, 199, 1974.
126. Rosenkranz, H.S. and Rosenkranz, S., Silver sulfadiazine: interaction with isolated deoxyribonucleic acid, Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother., 2, 373, 1972.
127. Rosenman, K.D., Moss, A., Kon, S. Argyria: Clinical Implications of Exposure to Silver Nitrate and Silver Oxide; Jour. Occupational Med. 21, 430-435 (1979)
128. Ross, E.M.: Argyria Caused by Chewing of Photographic Film, N Engl. J. Med. 299: 798, 1963.
129. Rowley, B.A., and McKenna, J.M. Electrical current effects on E. coli growth rates (36269), P.S.E.B.M., 139, 929, 1972.
130. Rungby, J., Experimental argyosis: ultrastructural localization of silver in rat eye, Exp. Mol. Pathol., 45, 22, 1986.
131. Rungby, J., Exogenous silver in dorsal root ganglia, peripheral nerve, enteric ganglia and adrenal medulla, Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin), 69, 46, 1986.
132. Rungby, J., Ellerman-Eriksen, S. and Danscher, G., Effects of selenium on toxicity and ultrastructural localization of silver in cultured macrophages, Arch. Toxicol., 61, 40, 1987.
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Dr. Flick has been a leader in the creation of noninvasive healing technologies for more than thirty five years. After receiving his Medical Degree he continued with specialty training in Orthopedic Surgery and Rehabilitation. Following his orthopedic residency Dr. Flick received advanced training in Pain Management, and Wound Management.

Over the years Dr. Flick’s multidisciplinary approach to healing has resulted in numerous patents and the development of innovative medical products that speed the healing process, alleviate pain and reduce swelling. He has worked with the Food and Drug Administration to achieve regulatory approval for numerous medical devices.

As an Senior Research Scientist at the University of Georgia, Dr. Flick has developed several new antimicrobial products that have been shown to be effective in eliminating harmful microbes, bacteria, viruses and fungi from open wounds and ulcerations.

Silver Archives

Statistics Prove Prescription Drugs Are 16,400% More Deadly Than Terrorists

America was rudely awakened to a new kind of danger on September 11, 2001: Terrorism. The attacks that day left 2,996 people dead, including the passengers on the four commercial airliners that were used as weapons. Many feel it was the most tragic day in U.S. history.

Four commercial jets crashed that day. But what if six jumbo jets crashed every day in the United States, claiming the lives of 783,936 people every year? That would certainly qualify as a massive tragedy, wouldn’t it?

Well, forget “what if.” The tragedy is happening right now. Over 750,000 people actually do die in the United States every year, although not from plane crashes. They die from something far more common and rarely perceived by the public as dangerous: modern medicine.

According to the groundbreaking 2003 medical report Death by Medicine, by Drs. Gary Null, Carolyn Dean, Martin Feldman, Debora Rasio and Dorothy Smith, 783,936 people in the United States die every year from conventional medicine mistakes. That’s the equivalent of six jumbo jet crashes a day for an entire year. But where is the media attention for this tragedy? Where is the government support for stopping these medical mistakes before they happen?

After 9/11, the White House gave rise to the Department of Homeland Security, designed to prevent terrorist attacks on U.S. soil. Since its inception, billions of dollars have been poured into it. The 2006 budget allots $34.2 billion to the DHS, a number that has come down slightly from the $37.7 billion budget of 2003.

According to the study led by Null, which involved a painstaking review of thousands of medical records, the United States spends $282 billion annually on deaths due to medical mistakes, or iatrogenic deaths. And that’s a conservative estimate; only a fraction of medical errors are reported, according to the study. Actual medical mistakes are likely to be 20 times higher than the reported number because doctors fear retaliation for those mistakes. The American public heads to the doctor’s office or the hospital time and again, oblivious of the alarming danger they’re heading into. The public knows that medical errors occur, but they assume that errors are unusual, isolated events. Unfortunately, by accepting conventional medicine, patients voluntarily continue to walk into the leading cause of death in America.

According to a 1995 U.S. iatrogenic report, “Over a million patients are injured in U.S. hospitals each year, and approximately 280,000 die annually as a result of these injuries. Therefore, the iatrogenic death rate dwarfs the annual automobile accident mortality rate of 45,000 and accounts for more deaths than all other accidents combined.” This report was issued 10 years ago, when America had 34 million fewer citizens and drug company scandals like the Vioxx recall were yet to occur. Today, health care comprises 15.5 percent of the United States’ gross national product, with spending reaching $1.4 trillion in 2004.

Since Americans spend so much money on health care, they should be getting a high quality of care, right? Unfortunately, that’s not the case. Of the 783,936 annual deaths due to conventional medical mistakes, about 106,000 are from prescription drugs, according to Death by Medicine. That also is a conservative number. Some experts estimate it should be more like 200,000 because of underreported cases of adverse drug reactions.

Americans today are used to fixing problems the quick way – even when it comes to their health. Thus, they rely heavily on prescription drugs to fix their diseases. For every conceivable ailment – real or not – chances are there’s a pricey prescription drug to “treat” it. Chances are even better that their drug of choice comes chock full of side effects.

The problem is, prescription drugs don’t treat diseases; they merely cover the symptoms. U.S. physicians provide allopathic health care – that is, they care for disease, not health. So, the over-prescription of drugs and medications is designed to treat disease instead of preventing it. And because there are so many drugs available, unforeseen adverse drug reactions are all too common, which leads to the highly conservative annual prescription drug death rate of 106,000. Keep in mind that these numbers came before the Vioxx scandal, and Cox-2 inhibitor drugs could ultimately end up killing tens of thousands more.

American medical patients are getting the short end of a rather raw deal when it comes to prescription drugs. Medicine is a high-dollar, highly competitive business. But it shouldn’t be. Null’s report cites the five most important aspects of health that modern medicine ignores in favor of the almighty dollar: Stress, lack of exercise, high calorie intake, highly processed foods and environmental toxin exposure. All these things are putting Americans in such poor health that they run to the doctor for treatment. But instead of doctors treating the causes of their poor health, such as putting them on a strict diet and exercise regimen, they stuff them full of prescription drugs to cover their symptoms. Using this inherently faulty system of medical treatment, it’s no wonder so many Americans die from prescription drugs. They’re not getting better; they’re just popping drugs to make their symptoms temporarily go away.

But not all doctors subscribe to this method of “treatment.” In fact, many doctors are just as angry as the public should be, charging that scientific medicine is “for sale” to the highest bidder – which, more often than not, end up being pharmaceutical companies. The pharmaceutical industry is a multi-trillion dollar business. Companies spend billions on advertising and promotions for prescription drugs. Who can remember the last time they watched television and weren’t bombarded with ads for pills treating everything from erectile dysfunction to sleeplessness? And who has ever been to a doctor’s office or hospital and not seen every pen, notepad and post-it bearing the logo of some prescription drug?

Medical experts claim that patients’ requests for certain drugs have no effect on the number of prescriptions written for that drug. Pharmaceutical companies claim their drug ads are “educational” to the public. The public believes the FDA reviews all the ads and only allows the safest and most effective drug ads to reach the public. It’s a clever system: Pharmaceutical companies influence the public to ask for prescription drugs, the public asks their physicians to prescribe them certain drugs, and doctors acquiesce to their patients’ requests. Everyone’s happy, right? Not quite, since the prescription drug death toll continues to rise.

The public seems to genuinely believe that drugs advertised on TV are safe, in spite of the plethora of side effects listed by the commercial’s narrator, ranging from diarrhea to death. Patients feel justified in asking their physicians to prescribe them a particular drug they’ve seen on TV, since it surely must be safe or it wouldn’t have been advertised. Remember all those TV ads heralding the wonders of Vioxx? One might wonder how many lives could have been spared if patients didn’t see the ad on TV and request a prescription from their doctors.

But advertising isn’t the only tool the pharmaceutical industry uses to influence medicine. Null’s study cites an ABC report that said pharmaceutical companies spend over $2 billion sending doctors to more than 314,000 events every year. While doctors are riding the dollar of pharmaceutical companies, enjoying all the many perks of these “events,” how likely are they to question the validity of drug companies or their products?

Admittedly, not all doctors reside in the pockets of the pharmaceutical companies. Some are downright angry at the situation, and angry on behalf of an unaware public. Major conflicts of interest exist between the American public, the medical community and the pharmaceutical industry. And although the public suffers the most from this conflict, it is the least informed. The public gets the short end of the stick and they don’t even know it. That is why the pharmaceutical industry remains a multi-trillion dollar business.

Prescription drugs are only a part of the U.S. healthcare system’s miserable failings. In fact, outpatient deaths, bedsore deaths and malnutrition deaths each account for higher death rates than adverse drug reactions. The problems run deep and cannot be remedied without drastic, widespread change in the system’s money and ethics.

The first issue – money – is the main reason the medical industry cannot seem to change. Prescribing more drugs and recommending more surgeries means more profits. Getting more drugs approved by the FDA, regardless of their safety, means more money for the pharmaceutical industry. As the healthcare system stands today, physicians and drug companies can’t seem to pass up earning loads of money, even if a few hundred thousand people lose their lives in the process. Even in drastic cases of deadly drugs, everyone involved has a scapegoat: Drug companies can blame the FDA for approving their product and the doctors for over-prescribing it, and doctors can blame the patients for wanting it and not properly weighing the risks.

What ultimately arises is a question of ethics. In layman’s terms, ethics are the rules or moral guidelines that govern the conduct of people or professions. Some ethics are ingrained from childhood, but some are specifically set forth. For example, nearly all medical schools have their new doctors take a modern form of the Hippocratic Oath. While few versions are identical, none include setting aside proper medical care in favor of money-making practices.

On the research side of the issue, “Death by Medicine” cites an ABC report that says clinical trials funded by pharmaceutical companies show a 90 percent chance that a drug will be perceived as effective, whereas clinical trials not funded by drug companies show only a 50 percent chance that a drug will be perceived as effective. “It appears that money can’t buy you love, but it can buy you any ‘scientific’ result you want,” writes Null and his team of researchers.

The government spends upwards of $30 billion a year on homeland security. Such spending seems important. Since 2001, 2,996 people in the United States have died from terrorism – all as a result of the 9/11 attacks. In that same period of time, 490,000 people have died from prescription drugs, not counting the Vioxx scandal. That means that prescription drugs in this country are at least 16,400 percent deadlier than terrorism. Again, those are the conservative numbers. A more realistic number, which would include deaths from over-the-counter drugs, makes drug consumption 32,000 percent deadlier than terrorism. But the scope of “Death by Medicine” is even wider. Conventional medicine, including unnecessary surgeries, bedsores and medical errors, is 104,700 percent deadlier than terrorism. Yet, our government’s attention and money is not put into reforming health care.

Couldn’t a little chunk of the homeland security money be better spent on overhauling the corrupt U.S. healthcare system, the leading cause of death in America? Couldn’t we forfeit the color-coded threat system in favor of stricter guidelines on medical research and prescription drugs? No one is attempting to say that terrorism in the world is not a problem, especially for a high-profile country like the United States. No one is saying that the people who died on 9/11 didn’t matter or weren’t horribly wronged by the terrorists that day. But there are more dangerous things in the United States being falsely represented as safe and healthy, when, in reality, they are deadly. The corruption in the pharmaceutical industry and in America’s healthcare system poses a far greater threat to the health, safety and welfare of Americans today than terrorism.

If the Bush Administration really wants to save lives — a lot of lives — it needs look no further than the chemical war has been declared on Americans by Big Pharma.